Religion is also studied within cultural geography, which studies how cultural processes spread. While religious communities develop within geographies and landscapes, diaspora communities from different religions have been shown to commonly form as minorities who live near or next to each other in most countries the diaspora migrates to. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [Online] 38 (2), 201–220.  For more on theoretical models used for cultural geography and religion, see: Hall, C. & Johnston-Anumonwo, I. Mark Altaweel | October 22, 2020April 3, 2018 | Human Geography. Traditional cultural geographical approaches to the study of religion mainly seek to determine religion’s impact on the landscape. , Another aspect of the relationship between religion and geography is religious geography, in which geographical ideas are influenced by religion, such as early map-making, and the biblical geography that developed in the 16th century to identify places from the Bible. Religion and geography is the study of the impact of geography, i.e. New York, NY, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. From the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the study of geography and religion mainly focused on mapping the spread of Christianity (termed ecclesiastical geography by Issac 1965), though in the later half of the seventeenth century, the influences and spread of other religions were also taken into account. Religions have been seen as developing due to environmental, landscape, and community relations and networks. Thus, geographers are less concerned about religion per se, but are more sensitive to how religion as a cultural feature affects social, cultural, political and environmental systems. Particularly in multicultural settings, the contestation for legitimacy, public approval, and negotiations for use of particular spaces are at the heart of determining how communities understand, internalise and struggle to compete for the right to practice their religious traditions in public spaces. As an overarching theme, the articulation of religious identity is concerned with material aspects of symbolizing religious identity (such as architecture and the establishment of a physical presence), with negotiations and struggles in asserting religious identity in the face of persecution and exclusion and with personal practices of religious ritual and behaviour that re-establishes one’s religious identity, As research on geography and religion has grown, one of the new focuses of geographical research examines the rise of religious fundamentalism, and the resulting impact this has on the geographical contexts in which it develops. These perceptions and imaginings influence the way such spaces are used, and the personal, spiritual meanings developed in using such sacred spaces. [Online] 115 (3), 106–111. place and space, on religious belief. Religious bonds are used to establish work and social networks for communities to adapt to new countries, where members from the same religion often use this connection to better adapt to their new societies.. Religions have been seen as developing due to environmental, landscape, and community relations and networks. "Geography and religion: trends and prospects", "Religious schools: for spirit, (f)or nation", "In Search of Permanent Homes: Singapore's House Churches and the Politics of Space", "Global shifts, theoretical shifts: Changing geographies of religion", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_and_geography&oldid=989656083, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 07:19. Re-materialising cultural geography. Two common models are used for understanding cultural spread, which include cultural diffusion and cultural region models where concepts of core and periphery of cultural ideas reflects areas where less or more presence of a given culture is present. Geographies of Muslim identities: diaspora, gender and belonging. Aldershot, England ; Burlington, VT, Ashgate. This includes sexual, social, economic, or national identities that at times create tensions within religious communities and movements..  Recent research in this area has been published by Barry A. Vann who analyzes Muslim population shifts in the Western world and the theological factors that play into these demographic trends. Progress in Human Geography. Geographers study religions and their development based on the role that geography intersects with other important social components within a human geographic approach. (2016) Perspectives on Cultural Geography in AP ® Human Geography. Such perspectives applied to general cultural concepts have been extended to explain how religious change occurs, where religions spread or ideas converge in place. Religions organize themselves – their institutions, practitioners, and structures – in a variety of fashions.  For more on the intermix of identities and religion, see: Skelton, T. (2016) Identities and subjectivities. , Religion may be a starting point to examine issues of ethnic identity formation and the construction of ethnic identity Geographers studying the negotiations of religious identity within various communities are often concerned with the overt articulation of religious identity, for example, how adherents in different locations establish their distinctive (religious and cultural) identities through their own understandings of the religion, and how they externally present their religious adherence (in terms of religious practice, ritual and behaviour). , As religious identity often intermixes with other social forms of identity, human geographers also look at how identities might be expressed within religious communities. Mormons, Israel, - bearing on embedded Scriptures and documents and 'group memoray') need to be. (2014) Grounded theologies: ‘Religion’ and the ‘secular’ in human geography.  For more on how geography affects religion, see: Kong, L. (1990) Geography and religion: trends and prospects. Scholars are also aware that these definitions are not static.  These works have focused on both material aspects of spaces (such as architectural distinctiveness) and socially constructed spaces (such as rituals and demarcation of sacred spaces) to present religious meaning and significance. Available from: doi:10.1177/030913259001400302. , In addition, migration processes have resulted in the development of religious pluralism in numerous countries, and the landscape changes that accompany the movement and settlement of communities defined by religion is a key focus in the study of geography and religion.  For more on how communities sharing a common faith form in diaspora locations, see: Cara Aitchison, Peter Hopkins, & Mei-po Kwan (eds.) The point of focus is not the specifics of religious beliefs and practices, but how these religious beliefs and practices are internalised by adherents, and how these processes of internalization influence, and is influenced by, social systems. For instance, when the Roman Catholic Church emerged, it borrowed many of its organizational principles from the ancient Roman military and turned senators into cardinals, for example. Geographers study religions and their development based on the role that geography intersects with other important social components within a human geographic approach. Journal of Geography. , Other traditional approaches to the study of the relationship between geography and religion involved the theological explorations of the workings of Nature – a highly environmentally deterministic approach which identified the role of geographical environments in determining the nature and evolution of different religious traditions.. , Religious development, which includes the process of secularization, is seen to be oriented and individualized through spirituality developing within cultures embedded in specific geographies.. Available from: doi:10.1080/00221341.2015.1101148. 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